Imana nawe yaguhaye ubwenge Matthieu

Ubwenge, ubumenyi cyangwa se ubuhanga ntabwo abantu babunganya, habaho abanyabwenge hakabaho n’abandi tuvuga tuti ntabwo ari abanyabwenge, ariko uburyo bwo kubimenya, kubugenzura cyangwa se kubupima nibyo bikunze gutera ikibazo ndetse n’urujijo harimo no kwibeshya bigashobora no gutuma umuntu abwirwa cyangwa se yibwirako nta bwenge agira nawe akabaho gutyo.

Muri iyi nkuru ntabwo turi butandukanye ubwenge, ubuhanga, n’ubumenyi n’ubwo bigiye bifite aho bitandukaniyeho gato.

Urugero rw’ubwenge abantu bakunda kurupimira kubintu abantu bakora cyangwa se bavuga bibasha kugaragara cyangwa se kumvikana nk’ibizamini cyangwa se ibindi bikorwa baba bakoze.

Habaho ikizamini cyangwa se irushanwa-nsuzumabwenge ryitwa IQ (intellectual Quotient) gitangwa kugirango harebwe ubwenge bw’umuntu hakurikijwe ikigero cy’imyaka agezemo. Amanota avuye muri icyo kizamini akunze kwifashishwa mu kwemererwa kwiga cyangwa gukora mu bigo binyuranye cyane cyane ku mugabane wa America n’Uburayi. Iki kizamini gikunze gutangwa ku bana mbere yo kwemererwa kwiga amashuri runaka.

Imvugo ikunze kugirwa n’abantu benshi ndetse ikanarenga kuba imvugo ikaba n’imyumvire kuri bamwe, iba mu kugereranya ubwenge bw’abantu (urugero hagati y’abazungu n’abirabura), bakavuga bati abazungu barusha ubwenge abirabura.
Ibi kandi tubisanga ahantu henshi hanyuranye. Mu cyegeranyo cyakozwe n’uwitwa A.R. Jensen cyasohotse mu kinyamakuru Libertarian Realist kuwa kane taliki ya 10 Gicurasi 2012, kigaragaza ko muri Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika amanota ari munsi ya 75 mu kizamini cya IQ abonwa ahanini n’abirabura naho amanota ari hejuru y’ijana akabonwa n’abazungu muri rusange.

Ibyiciro by’amanota ya IQ biteye bitya:

Ibibazo bibazwa muri IQ test bigabanijemo ibyiciro 4 aribyo:
• imitekerereze / reasoning
• gufata mu mutwe / memory
• kwihuta mu gusubiza / processing speed
• ubwenge – mvugo / verbal skills

The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life ni igitabo cyanditswe n’umuhanga mu by’imitekerereze w’umunyamerica (psychologist) witwa Richard J. Herrnstein (uyu yitabye Imana iki gitabo kitarasohoka) akaba yaracyanditse afatanije n’undi muhanga mu bya Politiki (political scientist) witwa Charles Murray. Iki gitabo cyavuzweho cyane n’abantu batari bake ko kigaragaramo irondaruhu rikabije. Aba bagabo bombi bakaba barerekanaga muri rusange ko impamvu abantu baba abakene biterwa no kutagira ubwenge kandi bakabigaragaza bifashishije amanota abantu bakoreweho igerageza bagize mu kizamini cyangwa se irushanwa-nsuzumabwenge rya IQ. Ibi bakabyifashisha bagaragaza ko ariyo mpamvu muri America abirabura benshi ari abakene.

Ubundi bushakashatsi bwakozwe kuri iki kizamini cya IQ, bugaragaza ko amanota abonwa mu byiciro bitatu bibanza twavuze haruguru (imitekerereze / reasoning, gufata mumutwe / memory, kwihuta mu gusubiza / processing speed) akunze kuba angana cyangwa se nta tandukaniro agaragaza hagati y’abantu (abirabura, abazungu, abakene, abakire, etc) bose babasha kugira amanota menshi cyangwa se makeya kimwe. Mu kiciro cya kane (ubwenge – mvugo / verbal skills) niho hagaragara itandukaniro aho abazungu bagira amanota menshi kurusha abirabura. Nk’uko nanone bitangazwa na Dr Roger Highfield ubwengemvugo buturuka gusa kumyitozo umuntu aba yarahawe, ntaho buhuriye n’icyo baba bise ubwenge. Tubibutseko IQ test ari igiteranyo cy’ayo manota yabonetse mu byiciro byose uko ari bine.

Mu nyandiko ya Dr Roger Highfield, umwanditsi w’inkuru z’ubuhanga / Science akaba n’umwe mu bayobozi b’ishyirahamwe Science Museum Group yavuzeko IQ test idakwiye gushingirwaho mukwemeza ubwenge bwa muntu kuko ngo ubwenge bw’umuntu bugizwe n’ibintu byinshi bidashobora gupimwa n’ikizamini kimwe kimara iminota 30 kandi cyateguwe n’undi muntu nkawe.

Mu gitabo cyitwa “Black Brain, White Brain” cyanditswe n’umushakashatsi Gavin Evans avugako kudasa kw’abatuye isi guturuka ku mitandukanire y’ahantu abantu baba mu gihe kirekire, aho hakaba harangwa n’ikirere gitandukanye n’icy’ahandi hiyongereyeho n’imitandukanire cg se imiterere y’umubiri w’umuntu kugiti cye.

Yongeraho ariko ko amatandukaniro y’abantu urebye mu buhanga (Scientific analysis) atagera imbere mu bwenge. Urugero: ibara ry’uruhu, ibara ry’umusatsi … (“The idea of race in scientific basis, describes very superficial characteristics”). Imiterere y’umubiri ishobora guhinduka bitewe n’ahantu aba (ariko nta sano bigirana n’ubwenge): urugero atanga kuri iyi ngingo ni uko nk’abantu baba ahantu haba Malariya aribo akenshi usanga banagira ibibazo byo kurwara indwara yitwa Sickle-Cell Anemia (SCA) (ni indwara igira ibimenyetso birimo ku kuba umuntu uyifite agira amaraso atabasha kuvura ku buryo iyo akomeretse bigora ko amaraso ye akama). Ibiri amambo: umuntu ufite iyi ndwara akaba adashobora kwandura malaria.

Iyo bigeze kubwenge, abahanga nka Gavin Evans bavugako ubwenge buturuka ku miterere y’uturemangingo tw’umuntu ("the intelligence involves the thousands of genes"), ibi bikaba bidashobora kugereranywa na gato n’ibyo tubona hanze nk’ibara ry’uruhu, imisatsi, amaso, cyangwa ngo buterwe n’ikirere cy’ahantu yabaye nk’uko bigendekera umuntu uba ahantu hagatuma agira umubiri utandukanye n’uw’abandi bantu baba ahandi; aha twakwibutsa urugero twavuze haruguru rwa CSA, n’ibindi.

Gavin Evans avugako ikizamini-nsuzumabwenge cya IQ kitagaragaza ubwenge karemano (biological and native intelligence) n’ubwo abagitegura ariko babyemeza. Aha yifashisha urugero rw’impanga zivutse zisa zikarererwa ahantu hatandukanye, amanota yazo ya IQ nayo aratandukana. Ibyo bikagaragazako uburere cyangwa se uko batojwe bifite uruhare rukomeye kuri ayo manota. Ibi kandi bikaba byiyongera kukuba ibibazo bibazwa muri iki kizamini bigenda bihinduka uko imyaka ishira kandi bikanagenda birushaho gukomera, bitavuzeko uko imyaka ishira ari nako abantu bavukana ubwenge bwinshi. Ahubwo igihinduka ni uko abantu babasha kubona amakuru y’ibintu mu buryo bworoshye ugereranije no mu bihe byashize (exposure to abstract logic) bikaba bitagize aho bihuriye n’ubwenge bavukanye. Urugero: niba muri uyu mwaka babajije izina ry’umwanditsi w’igitabo runaka, ubutaha ikibazo kizahinduka ibyanditswe muri icyo gitabo.

Ubwenge busobanurwa nk’ubushobozi bwo kwakira ndetse no gukoresha ibyo wahawe cg wigishijwe. Ubu bwenge Bibiliya isobanura ko butangwa n’Imana kandi ibasha no kubuha ubusabye (Yakobo 1:5).

“Ariko niba hariho umuntu muri mwe ubuze ubwenge, abusabe Imana iha abantu bose itimana, itishāma kandi azabuhabwa”

Ubwenge Imana yahaye buri muntu ashobora kubukoresha agakora ibintu kimwe n’abandi ndetse akabasha no gukora ibintu bishya mu gihe abukoresheje mu mpano yahawe. Ikindi kandi iyo umuntu yizera cyangwa akavugako atahawe ubwenge nk’ubw’abandi bishobora kumugiraho ingaruka zikomeye bikaba byanamugendekera uko (Kubara 14:28).

“Babwire uti ‘Uwiteka aravuga ati: Ndahiye guhoraho kwanjye yuko ntazabura kubagirira ibyo mwavugiye mu matwi yanjye” Nanone ariko Ijambo ry’Imana rigaragaza ko ubwenge nyakuri ari ukubaha Uwiteka ndetse no kuva mu byaha (Yobu 28:28).

“Maze ibwira umuntu iti ‘Dore kubaha Uwiteka ni bwo bwenge Kandi kuva mu byaha ni ko kujijuka.’ ”

Yanditswe na:
Matayo HABYARIMANA
University of KwaZulu Natal
Durban – South Africa